Author: Om Astha Rai

About Om Astha Rai

Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

New seeds of hope for Nepal’s farmers

Climate-resilient varieties of rice could help to protect crop yields from the ravages of droughts and floods caused by the increasingly erratic weather patterns in South Asia. KATHMANDU, 30 July, 2014 − Farmers badly affected by changing weather patterns in South Asia now have the opportunity to improve food security by planting new varieties of rice capable of withstanding the impact of both severe droughts and floods. This is particularly good news for countries such as Nepal, where around 65% of its more than 26 million people are involved in agriculture. Rice is the country’s most important crop, planted on more than 50% of its arable land. And it comes at a time when new research using satellite imaging has highlighted the growing need to change agricultural practices in South Asia as higher average temperatures cause the reduction of crop yields on the Indo-Gangetic plain. Scientists say the new seeds, developed by the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines and approved by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), are vital in order to deal with changing weather patterns − in particular, the increasingly erratic behaviour of the all-important South Asia monsoon. “These new varieties can really change the future of the country’s farmers,” says Dr Dil Bahadur Gurung, NARC’s executive director. “The new rice can, in most cases, beat the effects of droughts and floods.

Reduce impact

“All these varieties have been tested in Nepal’s soil and climate over and over again. If all the country’s farmers replace their traditional varieties with these new ones, the impact of climate change on our agriculture could be reduced considerably.” Local scientists say the timing of the South Asia monsoon − the only source of irrigation for the majority of Nepali farmers − is changing. “Each year, we see the monsoon arriving later,” says Mani Ratna Shakya, a leading meteorologist in Nepal. “The duration of the monsoon is also getting shorter as each year passes.” According to Nepal’s Meteorological Forecasting Division, the monsoon − which usually arrives in Nepal during the first week in June − came 10 days late this year. Droughts are becoming more frequent. This year, the monsoon is generally judged to be very weak, leaving a vast area of arable land parched, particularly in western parts of Nepal. And often, when the rains eventually do arrive, they are torrential, causing flash floods. So far, NARC has approved six drought-tolerant varieties of rice, under the name Sukkha − meaning dry. “Ordinary rice varieties dry out and die in droughts,” says Hari Krishna Uprety, a paddy expert at NARC. “The new seeds survive droughts even in the early stage of growth. And uncertainty about the onset of monsoon has made these varieties even more important.”

Hari Krishna Uprety, NARC paddy expert, with new rice seed varieties Image: Om Astha Rai
Hari Krishna Uprety, NARC paddy expert, with the new rice seed varieties Image: Om Astha Rai

The new varieties still need water, of course, but they become more drought tolerant by being able to store energy during the early stages of their growth. Two rice varieties capable of surviving flood conditions for up to two weeks have also been approved by NARC.

Erratic climate

Although the experts are backing the introduction of the new seeds in order to combat an increasingly erratic climate, persuading farmers to change their cultivation methods is a difficult task. Farmers are often reluctant to replace traditional rice varieties, which in Nepal tend to be specific to each part of the country, depending on soil conditions, elevation, and other factors. The new seeds are no more expensive than the traditional ones, and farmers even get a 30% discount on seeds approved by NARC, but a factor that could hamper uptake is that distribution is through the National Seed Company, which is not yet reaching out to farmers in every village. But scientists warn that the new varieties must be planted – not only to combat changes in climate, but also to feed growing populations. – Climate News Network

Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

Climate-resilient varieties of rice could help to protect crop yields from the ravages of droughts and floods caused by the increasingly erratic weather patterns in South Asia. KATHMANDU, 30 July, 2014 − Farmers badly affected by changing weather patterns in South Asia now have the opportunity to improve food security by planting new varieties of rice capable of withstanding the impact of both severe droughts and floods. This is particularly good news for countries such as Nepal, where around 65% of its more than 26 million people are involved in agriculture. Rice is the country’s most important crop, planted on more than 50% of its arable land. And it comes at a time when new research using satellite imaging has highlighted the growing need to change agricultural practices in South Asia as higher average temperatures cause the reduction of crop yields on the Indo-Gangetic plain. Scientists say the new seeds, developed by the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines and approved by the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), are vital in order to deal with changing weather patterns − in particular, the increasingly erratic behaviour of the all-important South Asia monsoon. “These new varieties can really change the future of the country’s farmers,” says Dr Dil Bahadur Gurung, NARC’s executive director. “The new rice can, in most cases, beat the effects of droughts and floods.

Reduce impact

“All these varieties have been tested in Nepal’s soil and climate over and over again. If all the country’s farmers replace their traditional varieties with these new ones, the impact of climate change on our agriculture could be reduced considerably.” Local scientists say the timing of the South Asia monsoon − the only source of irrigation for the majority of Nepali farmers − is changing. “Each year, we see the monsoon arriving later,” says Mani Ratna Shakya, a leading meteorologist in Nepal. “The duration of the monsoon is also getting shorter as each year passes.” According to Nepal’s Meteorological Forecasting Division, the monsoon − which usually arrives in Nepal during the first week in June − came 10 days late this year. Droughts are becoming more frequent. This year, the monsoon is generally judged to be very weak, leaving a vast area of arable land parched, particularly in western parts of Nepal. And often, when the rains eventually do arrive, they are torrential, causing flash floods. So far, NARC has approved six drought-tolerant varieties of rice, under the name Sukkha − meaning dry. “Ordinary rice varieties dry out and die in droughts,” says Hari Krishna Uprety, a paddy expert at NARC. “The new seeds survive droughts even in the early stage of growth. And uncertainty about the onset of monsoon has made these varieties even more important.”

Hari Krishna Uprety, NARC paddy expert, with new rice seed varieties Image: Om Astha Rai
Hari Krishna Uprety, NARC paddy expert, with the new rice seed varieties Image: Om Astha Rai

The new varieties still need water, of course, but they become more drought tolerant by being able to store energy during the early stages of their growth. Two rice varieties capable of surviving flood conditions for up to two weeks have also been approved by NARC.

Erratic climate

Although the experts are backing the introduction of the new seeds in order to combat an increasingly erratic climate, persuading farmers to change their cultivation methods is a difficult task. Farmers are often reluctant to replace traditional rice varieties, which in Nepal tend to be specific to each part of the country, depending on soil conditions, elevation, and other factors. The new seeds are no more expensive than the traditional ones, and farmers even get a 30% discount on seeds approved by NARC, but a factor that could hamper uptake is that distribution is through the National Seed Company, which is not yet reaching out to farmers in every village. But scientists warn that the new varieties must be planted – not only to combat changes in climate, but also to feed growing populations. – Climate News Network

Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

Nepal wins hearts and minds with biogas boom

Villagers in Nepal are increasingly being persuaded that small biogas installations using human waste to provide fuel are not only desirable but are also helping to reduce deforestation of the Himalayas and carbon emissions. KATHMANDU, 2 July, 2014 − Sunita Bote, a 30-year-old housewife from the small village of Kumroj in eastern Nepal, was far from convinced when energy specialists from the capital city, Kathmandu, talked about the benefits of constructing a small biogas plant near her house. “At first, I shuddered at the thought of connecting my cooking stove with a toilet’s septic tank,” Sunita recalls. But she was eventually persuaded – and now realises the multiple benefits of the biogas system. The plant not only produces enough energy for cooking for her family of seven, it also gets rid of both human and animal waste. “It is no longer seems disgusting to me,” Sunita says. “Instead, it has eased my household chores.” Most of Sunita’s neighbours feel the same way, and Kumroj has now been named by the government as Nepal’s first model biogas village, with more than 80% of households having their own biogas installations.

Frequent blackouts

Nepal, a landlocked country of just over 26 million people, has big energy problems. Its cities and towns, reliant on imported fossil fuels for energy, suffer frequent electricity blackouts due to ageing infrastructure and shortages of funds. With its mountain ranges and many rivers, there is great potential for hydropower, but tight budgets mean there has as yet been little investment in these big, capital-intensive projects. However, the energy outlook is slowly changing. Instead of building big hydropower plants, local groups − helped by NGOs and outside funders − are constructing micro hydro projects all over the country. So far, more than 1,000 such plants have been built. There has also been investment in developing solar power. Meanwhile, thousands of biogas projects are being put in place in backyards and fields throughout the country.

Fuel needs

According to the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), a government agency responsible for promoting renewable energy, there are now more than 300,000 biogas plants providing for the fuel needs of nearly 6% of Nepal’s households. “At first, people were wary about getting energy from their toilet septic tanks,” says Professor Govinda Pokharel, vice-chairman of the government’s National Planning Commission and, until recently, a director of AEPC.

“In some cases, those who installed biogas plants were even ostracised by their neighbours”

“It was human faeces that caused the trouble. People, especially those who were not educated and were living in remote villages, were against the idea of using their faeces for cooking food. In some cases, those who installed biogas plants were even ostracised by their neighbours. But attitudes have changed. When animal dung is mixed with human faeces, greater power is generated.” Traditionally, wood has been the main source of fuel for cooking and heating. But deforestation – with the resulting landslides and floods – has been a big problem.

Trees saved

The Biogas Sector Programme, a Kathmandu-based organisation that promotes the use of biogas, says every biogas plant can save 1.25 trees each year, That means that, due to biogas, nearly 400,000 trees a year throughout the country are saved from being chopped down. Biogas not only replaces wood for fuel, it can also help reduce carbon emissions. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calculates that a standard biogas plant saves greenhouse gas emissions of between three and five tons each year, compared with other energy sources such as wood. The AEPC says that Nepal, through the use of biogas and by not cutting tree cover, is helping to reduce the country’s overall emissions by more than one million tons a year. “It may not be a huge contribution at the global level, but it is not negligible either,” Prof Pokharel says. There are plans to install at least 26,000 biogas plants around the country each year. “The more we install, the more we save trees,” Prof Pokharel says, “And the saving of each tree is important in combating climate change.” – Climate News Network

 

• Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily. Follow him on Twitter @ https://twitter.com/omastharai

Villagers in Nepal are increasingly being persuaded that small biogas installations using human waste to provide fuel are not only desirable but are also helping to reduce deforestation of the Himalayas and carbon emissions. KATHMANDU, 2 July, 2014 − Sunita Bote, a 30-year-old housewife from the small village of Kumroj in eastern Nepal, was far from convinced when energy specialists from the capital city, Kathmandu, talked about the benefits of constructing a small biogas plant near her house. “At first, I shuddered at the thought of connecting my cooking stove with a toilet’s septic tank,” Sunita recalls. But she was eventually persuaded – and now realises the multiple benefits of the biogas system. The plant not only produces enough energy for cooking for her family of seven, it also gets rid of both human and animal waste. “It is no longer seems disgusting to me,” Sunita says. “Instead, it has eased my household chores.” Most of Sunita’s neighbours feel the same way, and Kumroj has now been named by the government as Nepal’s first model biogas village, with more than 80% of households having their own biogas installations.

Frequent blackouts

Nepal, a landlocked country of just over 26 million people, has big energy problems. Its cities and towns, reliant on imported fossil fuels for energy, suffer frequent electricity blackouts due to ageing infrastructure and shortages of funds. With its mountain ranges and many rivers, there is great potential for hydropower, but tight budgets mean there has as yet been little investment in these big, capital-intensive projects. However, the energy outlook is slowly changing. Instead of building big hydropower plants, local groups − helped by NGOs and outside funders − are constructing micro hydro projects all over the country. So far, more than 1,000 such plants have been built. There has also been investment in developing solar power. Meanwhile, thousands of biogas projects are being put in place in backyards and fields throughout the country.

Fuel needs

According to the Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), a government agency responsible for promoting renewable energy, there are now more than 300,000 biogas plants providing for the fuel needs of nearly 6% of Nepal’s households. “At first, people were wary about getting energy from their toilet septic tanks,” says Professor Govinda Pokharel, vice-chairman of the government’s National Planning Commission and, until recently, a director of AEPC.

“In some cases, those who installed biogas plants were even ostracised by their neighbours”

“It was human faeces that caused the trouble. People, especially those who were not educated and were living in remote villages, were against the idea of using their faeces for cooking food. In some cases, those who installed biogas plants were even ostracised by their neighbours. But attitudes have changed. When animal dung is mixed with human faeces, greater power is generated.” Traditionally, wood has been the main source of fuel for cooking and heating. But deforestation – with the resulting landslides and floods – has been a big problem.

Trees saved

The Biogas Sector Programme, a Kathmandu-based organisation that promotes the use of biogas, says every biogas plant can save 1.25 trees each year, That means that, due to biogas, nearly 400,000 trees a year throughout the country are saved from being chopped down. Biogas not only replaces wood for fuel, it can also help reduce carbon emissions. The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calculates that a standard biogas plant saves greenhouse gas emissions of between three and five tons each year, compared with other energy sources such as wood. The AEPC says that Nepal, through the use of biogas and by not cutting tree cover, is helping to reduce the country’s overall emissions by more than one million tons a year. “It may not be a huge contribution at the global level, but it is not negligible either,” Prof Pokharel says. There are plans to install at least 26,000 biogas plants around the country each year. “The more we install, the more we save trees,” Prof Pokharel says, “And the saving of each tree is important in combating climate change.” – Climate News Network

 

• Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily. Follow him on Twitter @ https://twitter.com/omastharai

Heat has deadly impact on Nepal’s Gulf workers

Temperature extremes resulting from climate change have led to serious concerns about the impact on human health − but warnings have come too late for many Nepali migrants who have died working in Gulf states.

LONDON/KATHMANDU, 27 June, 2014 − Sabin is a 22-year-old from a small town in eastern Nepal, in the foothills of the Himalayas. But he isn’t living there now. To support his family, he’s been working as a truck driver in Qatar for the last five years.

“When I arrived in Qatar I could not believe the heat,” he says. “I never knew such extreme temperatures in my home place. Without AC (air conditioning) in my truck, I wouldn’t be able to survive. I would simply die.”

Sabin is part of an estimated 400,000-strong contingent of Nepalis now working in the small Gulf state − and he is one of the lucky ones. A substantial number of his fellow workers have died because of the conditions they have to work and live in – and the searing heat is thought to be a major factor in the high mortality rate.

Construction workers in Qatar, where summertime temperatures can reach 45˚C or more, are particularly vulnerable to heat exposure.

Dipesh has worked on various projects in Qatar. He has seen fellow Nepali workers − most of whom come from villages high up in the Himalayas, where they are used to a cool climate − wilt in the heat and then, ironically, die as a result of the cold in air conditioned rooms.

‘Killer machine’

“Especially for those working in the construction sector, the AC is like a killer machine,” Dipesh says. “They are exposed to extreme temperatures outside, then when they get breaks in the day, they fall asleep in the artificially-cooled rooms. Some of them never wake up – they die in their sleep.”

Qataris have the highest income per capita in the world, but only 6% of the 2 million people in the country are citizens. The rest are immigrants − the majority coming from Asia.

While exact statistics are hard to come by, because workers who speak out fear repercussions,  it is believed that at least 60 Nepalis − most of them working in the construction industry − have died in Qatar this year alone. In the majority of cases, the cause of death was officially given as heart disease. But many of the Nepalis believe that most of the deaths were caused by heat stroke.

The human body is designed to maintain a core temperature of 37˚C. Health specialists say that the physical impact of heat is often neglected, and should be considered in discussions about climate change.

A multi-centre international study programme called Hothaps (high occupational temperature: health and productivity suppression) is examining the issue, particularly in relation to increasingly high temperatures being recorded in some regions due to climate change.

“Heat transfer goes into the body and only
evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat”

“If the ambient air temperature is higher than 37˚C, heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat,” Hothaps says. “However, such evaporation is less and less effective as the humidity level goes up and, at 100% relative humidity, sweating continues but creates no body heat loss.”

Studies have shown that when the core body temperature rises above 38˚C, physical and mental capabilities diminish rapidly and there is an increased risk of accidents.

When the body temperature is above 39˚C, heat stroke occurs, while above 40.6˚C there’s the strong possibility of life-threatening “severe hyperpyrexia”, or high fever – leading to death.

Heat not only affects health but can also have a big impact on economic activity, with the productivity of workers labouring outside dropping by as much as 80% during the hottest hours of the day in summer in cities such as New Delhi.

Increased urbanisation, particularly in parts of Asia, is only adding to the problem. The “heat island effect” means that cities are often several degrees warmer than the countryside, so those in urban areas are at greater risk of heat stress.

This has considerable implications for the economic future of tropical countries, which are seeing spikes in temperatures related to climate change.

Risk of malaria

In some tropical regions, contractors are insisting that their workers make increasing use of “cool periods” – instructing them to work at dawn or dusk, or to labour through the night. One problem of this is that mosquitoes are far more active in the cooler hours, and so the risk of malaria increases.

Some workers, such as those millions involved in agriculture, have no alternative but to work in − and often through − the hottest period of the day.

In Qatar, regulations prohibit companies from making workers labour through the hottest period of the day in the summer months. Adequate worker breaks should also be provided.

But Bhim Prasad Bhandari, who worked as a tea boy in Qatar for four years before returning to his mountain village in Nepal, says: “The monthly salaries for Nepali workers are too low (less that $200), so they are often tempted to work overtime, even in the prohibited hours.

“Some companies do not want to halt their work during the day. The official work time is eight hours, but the Nepalis, who are often burdened with loans and the expectations of their families at home, carry on and work up to 14 hours a day. They live in unliveable conditions.” – Climate News Network

• Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

• Some of the names in this article have been changed to protect the Nepali workers.

Temperature extremes resulting from climate change have led to serious concerns about the impact on human health − but warnings have come too late for many Nepali migrants who have died working in Gulf states.

LONDON/KATHMANDU, 27 June, 2014 − Sabin is a 22-year-old from a small town in eastern Nepal, in the foothills of the Himalayas. But he isn’t living there now. To support his family, he’s been working as a truck driver in Qatar for the last five years.

“When I arrived in Qatar I could not believe the heat,” he says. “I never knew such extreme temperatures in my home place. Without AC (air conditioning) in my truck, I wouldn’t be able to survive. I would simply die.”

Sabin is part of an estimated 400,000-strong contingent of Nepalis now working in the small Gulf state − and he is one of the lucky ones. A substantial number of his fellow workers have died because of the conditions they have to work and live in – and the searing heat is thought to be a major factor in the high mortality rate.

Construction workers in Qatar, where summertime temperatures can reach 45˚C or more, are particularly vulnerable to heat exposure.

Dipesh has worked on various projects in Qatar. He has seen fellow Nepali workers − most of whom come from villages high up in the Himalayas, where they are used to a cool climate − wilt in the heat and then, ironically, die as a result of the cold in air conditioned rooms.

‘Killer machine’

“Especially for those working in the construction sector, the AC is like a killer machine,” Dipesh says. “They are exposed to extreme temperatures outside, then when they get breaks in the day, they fall asleep in the artificially-cooled rooms. Some of them never wake up – they die in their sleep.”

Qataris have the highest income per capita in the world, but only 6% of the 2 million people in the country are citizens. The rest are immigrants − the majority coming from Asia.

While exact statistics are hard to come by, because workers who speak out fear repercussions,  it is believed that at least 60 Nepalis − most of them working in the construction industry − have died in Qatar this year alone. In the majority of cases, the cause of death was officially given as heart disease. But many of the Nepalis believe that most of the deaths were caused by heat stroke.

The human body is designed to maintain a core temperature of 37˚C. Health specialists say that the physical impact of heat is often neglected, and should be considered in discussions about climate change.

A multi-centre international study programme called Hothaps (high occupational temperature: health and productivity suppression) is examining the issue, particularly in relation to increasingly high temperatures being recorded in some regions due to climate change.

“Heat transfer goes into the body and only
evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat”

“If the ambient air temperature is higher than 37˚C, heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat,” Hothaps says. “However, such evaporation is less and less effective as the humidity level goes up and, at 100% relative humidity, sweating continues but creates no body heat loss.”

Studies have shown that when the core body temperature rises above 38˚C, physical and mental capabilities diminish rapidly and there is an increased risk of accidents.

When the body temperature is above 39˚C, heat stroke occurs, while above 40.6˚C there’s the strong possibility of life-threatening “severe hyperpyrexia”, or high fever – leading to death.

Heat not only affects health but can also have a big impact on economic activity, with the productivity of workers labouring outside dropping by as much as 80% during the hottest hours of the day in summer in cities such as New Delhi.

Increased urbanisation, particularly in parts of Asia, is only adding to the problem. The “heat island effect” means that cities are often several degrees warmer than the countryside, so those in urban areas are at greater risk of heat stress.

This has considerable implications for the economic future of tropical countries, which are seeing spikes in temperatures related to climate change.

Risk of malaria

In some tropical regions, contractors are insisting that their workers make increasing use of “cool periods” – instructing them to work at dawn or dusk, or to labour through the night. One problem of this is that mosquitoes are far more active in the cooler hours, and so the risk of malaria increases.

Some workers, such as those millions involved in agriculture, have no alternative but to work in − and often through − the hottest period of the day.

In Qatar, regulations prohibit companies from making workers labour through the hottest period of the day in the summer months. Adequate worker breaks should also be provided.

But Bhim Prasad Bhandari, who worked as a tea boy in Qatar for four years before returning to his mountain village in Nepal, says: “The monthly salaries for Nepali workers are too low (less that $200), so they are often tempted to work overtime, even in the prohibited hours.

“Some companies do not want to halt their work during the day. The official work time is eight hours, but the Nepalis, who are often burdened with loans and the expectations of their families at home, carry on and work up to 14 hours a day. They live in unliveable conditions.” – Climate News Network

• Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

• Some of the names in this article have been changed to protect the Nepali workers.

Heat has deadly impact on Nepal’s Gulf workers

Temperature extremes resulting from climate change have led to serious concerns about the impact on human health − but warnings have come too late for many Nepali migrants who have died working in Gulf states. LONDON/KATHMANDU, 27 June, 2014 − Sabin is a 22-year-old from a small town in eastern Nepal, in the foothills of the Himalayas. But he isn’t living there now. To support his family, he’s been working as a truck driver in Qatar for the last five years. “When I arrived in Qatar I could not believe the heat,” he says. “I never knew such extreme temperatures in my home place. Without AC (air conditioning) in my truck, I wouldn’t be able to survive. I would simply die.” Sabin is part of an estimated 400,000-strong contingent of Nepalis now working in the small Gulf state − and he is one of the lucky ones. A substantial number of his fellow workers have died because of the conditions they have to work and live in – and the searing heat is thought to be a major factor in the high mortality rate. Construction workers in Qatar, where summertime temperatures can reach 45˚C or more, are particularly vulnerable to heat exposure. Dipesh has worked on various projects in Qatar. He has seen fellow Nepali workers − most of whom come from villages high up in the Himalayas, where they are used to a cool climate − wilt in the heat and then, ironically, die as a result of the cold in air conditioned rooms.

‘Killer machine’

“Especially for those working in the construction sector, the AC is like a killer machine,” Dipesh says. “They are exposed to extreme temperatures outside, then when they get breaks in the day, they fall asleep in the artificially-cooled rooms. Some of them never wake up – they die in their sleep.” Qataris have the highest income per capita in the world, but only 6% of the 2 million people in the country are citizens. The rest are immigrants − the majority coming from Asia. While exact statistics are hard to come by, because workers who speak out fear repercussions,  it is believed that at least 60 Nepalis − most of them working in the construction industry − have died in Qatar this year alone. In the majority of cases, the cause of death was officially given as heart disease. But many of the Nepalis believe that most of the deaths were caused by heat stroke. The human body is designed to maintain a core temperature of 37˚C. Health specialists say that the physical impact of heat is often neglected, and should be considered in discussions about climate change. A multi-centre international study programme called Hothaps (high occupational temperature: health and productivity suppression) is examining the issue, particularly in relation to increasingly high temperatures being recorded in some regions due to climate change.

“Heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat”

“If the ambient air temperature is higher than 37˚C, heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat,” Hothaps says. “However, such evaporation is less and less effective as the humidity level goes up and, at 100% relative humidity, sweating continues but creates no body heat loss.” Studies have shown that when the core body temperature rises above 38˚C, physical and mental capabilities diminish rapidly and there is an increased risk of accidents. When the body temperature is above 39˚C, heat stroke occurs, while above 40.6˚C there’s the strong possibility of life-threatening “severe hyperpyrexia”, or high fever – leading to death. Heat not only affects health but can also have a big impact on economic activity, with the productivity of workers labouring outside dropping by as much as 80% during the hottest hours of the day in summer in cities such as New Delhi. Increased urbanisation, particularly in parts of Asia, is only adding to the problem. The “heat island effect” means that cities are often several degrees warmer than the countryside, so those in urban areas are at greater risk of heat stress. This has considerable implications for the economic future of tropical countries, which are seeing spikes in temperatures related to climate change.

Risk of malaria

In some tropical regions, contractors are insisting that their workers make increasing use of “cool periods” – instructing them to work at dawn or dusk, or to labour through the night. One problem of this is that mosquitoes are far more active in the cooler hours, and so the risk of malaria increases. Some workers, such as those millions involved in agriculture, have no alternative but to work in − and often through − the hottest period of the day. In Qatar, regulations prohibit companies from making workers labour through the hottest period of the day in the summer months. Adequate worker breaks should also be provided. But Bhim Prasad Bhandari, who worked as a tea boy in Qatar for four years before returning to his mountain village in Nepal, says: “The monthly salaries for Nepali workers are too low (less that $200), so they are often tempted to work overtime, even in the prohibited hours. “Some companies do not want to halt their work during the day. The official work time is eight hours, but the Nepalis, who are often burdened with loans and the expectations of their families at home, carry on and work up to 14 hours a day. They live in unliveable conditions.” – Climate News Network

Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

Some of the names in this article have been changed to protect the Nepali workers.

Temperature extremes resulting from climate change have led to serious concerns about the impact on human health − but warnings have come too late for many Nepali migrants who have died working in Gulf states. LONDON/KATHMANDU, 27 June, 2014 − Sabin is a 22-year-old from a small town in eastern Nepal, in the foothills of the Himalayas. But he isn’t living there now. To support his family, he’s been working as a truck driver in Qatar for the last five years. “When I arrived in Qatar I could not believe the heat,” he says. “I never knew such extreme temperatures in my home place. Without AC (air conditioning) in my truck, I wouldn’t be able to survive. I would simply die.” Sabin is part of an estimated 400,000-strong contingent of Nepalis now working in the small Gulf state − and he is one of the lucky ones. A substantial number of his fellow workers have died because of the conditions they have to work and live in – and the searing heat is thought to be a major factor in the high mortality rate. Construction workers in Qatar, where summertime temperatures can reach 45˚C or more, are particularly vulnerable to heat exposure. Dipesh has worked on various projects in Qatar. He has seen fellow Nepali workers − most of whom come from villages high up in the Himalayas, where they are used to a cool climate − wilt in the heat and then, ironically, die as a result of the cold in air conditioned rooms.

‘Killer machine’

“Especially for those working in the construction sector, the AC is like a killer machine,” Dipesh says. “They are exposed to extreme temperatures outside, then when they get breaks in the day, they fall asleep in the artificially-cooled rooms. Some of them never wake up – they die in their sleep.” Qataris have the highest income per capita in the world, but only 6% of the 2 million people in the country are citizens. The rest are immigrants − the majority coming from Asia. While exact statistics are hard to come by, because workers who speak out fear repercussions,  it is believed that at least 60 Nepalis − most of them working in the construction industry − have died in Qatar this year alone. In the majority of cases, the cause of death was officially given as heart disease. But many of the Nepalis believe that most of the deaths were caused by heat stroke. The human body is designed to maintain a core temperature of 37˚C. Health specialists say that the physical impact of heat is often neglected, and should be considered in discussions about climate change. A multi-centre international study programme called Hothaps (high occupational temperature: health and productivity suppression) is examining the issue, particularly in relation to increasingly high temperatures being recorded in some regions due to climate change.

“Heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat”

“If the ambient air temperature is higher than 37˚C, heat transfer goes into the body and only evaporation of sweat can reduce body heat,” Hothaps says. “However, such evaporation is less and less effective as the humidity level goes up and, at 100% relative humidity, sweating continues but creates no body heat loss.” Studies have shown that when the core body temperature rises above 38˚C, physical and mental capabilities diminish rapidly and there is an increased risk of accidents. When the body temperature is above 39˚C, heat stroke occurs, while above 40.6˚C there’s the strong possibility of life-threatening “severe hyperpyrexia”, or high fever – leading to death. Heat not only affects health but can also have a big impact on economic activity, with the productivity of workers labouring outside dropping by as much as 80% during the hottest hours of the day in summer in cities such as New Delhi. Increased urbanisation, particularly in parts of Asia, is only adding to the problem. The “heat island effect” means that cities are often several degrees warmer than the countryside, so those in urban areas are at greater risk of heat stress. This has considerable implications for the economic future of tropical countries, which are seeing spikes in temperatures related to climate change.

Risk of malaria

In some tropical regions, contractors are insisting that their workers make increasing use of “cool periods” – instructing them to work at dawn or dusk, or to labour through the night. One problem of this is that mosquitoes are far more active in the cooler hours, and so the risk of malaria increases. Some workers, such as those millions involved in agriculture, have no alternative but to work in − and often through − the hottest period of the day. In Qatar, regulations prohibit companies from making workers labour through the hottest period of the day in the summer months. Adequate worker breaks should also be provided. But Bhim Prasad Bhandari, who worked as a tea boy in Qatar for four years before returning to his mountain village in Nepal, says: “The monthly salaries for Nepali workers are too low (less that $200), so they are often tempted to work overtime, even in the prohibited hours. “Some companies do not want to halt their work during the day. The official work time is eight hours, but the Nepalis, who are often burdened with loans and the expectations of their families at home, carry on and work up to 14 hours a day. They live in unliveable conditions.” – Climate News Network

Om Astha Rai is a reporter with Nepalese national newspaper, Republica Daily.

Some of the names in this article have been changed to protect the Nepali workers.