Tag Archives: California

Drought intensifies in western US

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE In recent days California has announced its most severe water restrictions ever as drought continues to hit the state. Scientists say the region’s rainfall has been declining over the years and the consequences are serious. LONDON, 3 February – January is the month when Californians put on their rain jackets – but not this year. It’s the month which is usually wettest in the western US, when rivers and reservoirs are replenished: this year there was virtually no rain through January in much of the region, following on from an exceptionally dry period through much of 2013. A vast area of land in the western region of the American land mass, stretching from the province of Alberta in Canada across to parts of Texas in the US and on down into Mexico, is suffering as reservoirs and rivers dry up. A state of emergency has been declared in several areas, including California. Dr Wallace Covington is director of the Ecological Restoration Institute at Northern Arizona University. “What we’re seeing across this region is an intensification of long-established aspects of climate change”, Covington told Climate News Network. “I hate to sound pessimistic but all around in these large watersheds we’re seeing a degradation of water structure and function. There’s increased erosion leading to desertification, and with the dry conditions and generally stronger winds the forest fire season is being extended.” Covington is an internationally recognised expert on forest restoration who has been studying tree growth in Arizona for many years, particularly among its ponderosa pines – the Pinus ponderosa.

30-year drought

“Longer drought periods and increasing temperatures are resulting in attacks by bark beetles – which can eventually kill off trees – becoming increasingly severe. ‘The trees can’t produce adequate moisture: if enough photosynthesis is going on they can fight off the beetles and their larvae. But in northern Arizona we’ve been under drought conditions for about 30 years and it’s getting worse. We’ve been losing pines that are 300 or 400 years old at an alarming rate.” At the end of last month California’s State Water Project – the largest state-built water and power development and distribution system in the US – said it would stop supplying water to local agencies in many areas in order, said officials, to use what water remained “as wisely as possible”. The agencies – which supply water to about 25 million people and to about 750,000 acres of farmland – would in future have to look elsewhere for water, including from local reservoirs or from groundwater sources. Mr Jerry Brown, California’s governor, says the water shortages are “a stark reminder that California’s drought is real” and has asked people to reduce their water consumption by at least 20%.

Food price fears

The western region of the US is one of the world’s main agricultural production regions and if the drought is prolonged global food prices could rise. In some areas ranchers have been forced to sell off their herds and in others farmers are abandoning their crops. In southern California, an area which produces a wide variety of vegetables, fruits, nuts and other crops, farmers are complaining that water supplies are being diverted to towns and cities from their lands. “It’s not as if there hasn’t been enough warning about what’s happening”, says Covington. “These changes have been going on over decades but the trouble is our political and management systems respond only in four to five year cycles, not to 40 or 50 year trends. “This is above national – it’s global. Yet our institutions are national at best. And we don’t have a lot of time to act.” – Climate News Network

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE In recent days California has announced its most severe water restrictions ever as drought continues to hit the state. Scientists say the region’s rainfall has been declining over the years and the consequences are serious. LONDON, 3 February – January is the month when Californians put on their rain jackets – but not this year. It’s the month which is usually wettest in the western US, when rivers and reservoirs are replenished: this year there was virtually no rain through January in much of the region, following on from an exceptionally dry period through much of 2013. A vast area of land in the western region of the American land mass, stretching from the province of Alberta in Canada across to parts of Texas in the US and on down into Mexico, is suffering as reservoirs and rivers dry up. A state of emergency has been declared in several areas, including California. Dr Wallace Covington is director of the Ecological Restoration Institute at Northern Arizona University. “What we’re seeing across this region is an intensification of long-established aspects of climate change”, Covington told Climate News Network. “I hate to sound pessimistic but all around in these large watersheds we’re seeing a degradation of water structure and function. There’s increased erosion leading to desertification, and with the dry conditions and generally stronger winds the forest fire season is being extended.” Covington is an internationally recognised expert on forest restoration who has been studying tree growth in Arizona for many years, particularly among its ponderosa pines – the Pinus ponderosa.

30-year drought

“Longer drought periods and increasing temperatures are resulting in attacks by bark beetles – which can eventually kill off trees – becoming increasingly severe. ‘The trees can’t produce adequate moisture: if enough photosynthesis is going on they can fight off the beetles and their larvae. But in northern Arizona we’ve been under drought conditions for about 30 years and it’s getting worse. We’ve been losing pines that are 300 or 400 years old at an alarming rate.” At the end of last month California’s State Water Project – the largest state-built water and power development and distribution system in the US – said it would stop supplying water to local agencies in many areas in order, said officials, to use what water remained “as wisely as possible”. The agencies – which supply water to about 25 million people and to about 750,000 acres of farmland – would in future have to look elsewhere for water, including from local reservoirs or from groundwater sources. Mr Jerry Brown, California’s governor, says the water shortages are “a stark reminder that California’s drought is real” and has asked people to reduce their water consumption by at least 20%.

Food price fears

The western region of the US is one of the world’s main agricultural production regions and if the drought is prolonged global food prices could rise. In some areas ranchers have been forced to sell off their herds and in others farmers are abandoning their crops. In southern California, an area which produces a wide variety of vegetables, fruits, nuts and other crops, farmers are complaining that water supplies are being diverted to towns and cities from their lands. “It’s not as if there hasn’t been enough warning about what’s happening”, says Covington. “These changes have been going on over decades but the trouble is our political and management systems respond only in four to five year cycles, not to 40 or 50 year trends. “This is above national – it’s global. Yet our institutions are national at best. And we don’t have a lot of time to act.” – Climate News Network

Loss of snow in California to hit winter sports and water supply

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE “Clear and compelling evidence” shows that winter snows vital for tourism and agriculture are in rapid decline in Southern California. LONDON, 21 June – By mid century, the snow-capped mountains of Southern California will be a lot less snowy, according to a new study from the University of California Los Angeles. The mountains beyond Pasadena, Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Venice Beach and other iconic addresses will have 30 to 40 per cent less snow on top and none at all at lower elevations. And by 2100, snowfall could be reduced to about a third of its level in 2000. Alex Hall, of UCLA’s department of atmospheric and oceanic sciences, warned “Climate change has become inevitable, and we’re going to lose a substantial amount of snow by mid-century. But our choices matter. By the end of the century there will be stark differences in how much snowfall remains, depending on whether we begin to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.” The study was produced with funding from the City of Los Angeles – the city’s mayor Antonio Villaraigosa called it “clear and compelling” – and it examined snowfall in the San Gabriel and San Bernadino mountains and other ranges. The consequences for tourist and leisure industries could be considerable: local enthusiasts use the slopes for skiing and snowboarding; lower snowfalls could have implications for water supplies, agriculture and increased flooding from more frequent rains. More flooding The scientists used climate models and real data from local townships to quantify future snow forecasts, but did not measure snow melt. Earlier research had established that the city and its environs could expect to experience a warming of 4° to 5°F (around 2.5°C) by mid century. By then, the snowpack would be melting 16 days earlier than it did at the beginning of the century. Temperatures would fall to freezing later, and less often, so what fell would be rain, with quicker runoff and more flooding as a consequence. The researcher considered two scenarios – one the notorious “business as usual” prospect, in which greenhouse gas emissions continued to rise without restraint, and the other a world in which governments and society tried to significantly reduce emissions. By 2050, under the mitigation scenario, snowfall would be reduced 31% by 2050, but would stay relatively stable and only be at 33% below baseline by 2100. If the world fails to take action to mitigate climate change, by 2100 however, loss of snow is expected to reach 67% by the end of the century. “Los Angeles must begin today to prepare for climate change,” said Mayor Villaraigosa. “We invested in this study and created the AdaptLA framework to craft innovative solutions and preserve our quality of life for the next generation of Angelenos.” – Climate News Network

FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE “Clear and compelling evidence” shows that winter snows vital for tourism and agriculture are in rapid decline in Southern California. LONDON, 21 June – By mid century, the snow-capped mountains of Southern California will be a lot less snowy, according to a new study from the University of California Los Angeles. The mountains beyond Pasadena, Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Venice Beach and other iconic addresses will have 30 to 40 per cent less snow on top and none at all at lower elevations. And by 2100, snowfall could be reduced to about a third of its level in 2000. Alex Hall, of UCLA’s department of atmospheric and oceanic sciences, warned “Climate change has become inevitable, and we’re going to lose a substantial amount of snow by mid-century. But our choices matter. By the end of the century there will be stark differences in how much snowfall remains, depending on whether we begin to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.” The study was produced with funding from the City of Los Angeles – the city’s mayor Antonio Villaraigosa called it “clear and compelling” – and it examined snowfall in the San Gabriel and San Bernadino mountains and other ranges. The consequences for tourist and leisure industries could be considerable: local enthusiasts use the slopes for skiing and snowboarding; lower snowfalls could have implications for water supplies, agriculture and increased flooding from more frequent rains. More flooding The scientists used climate models and real data from local townships to quantify future snow forecasts, but did not measure snow melt. Earlier research had established that the city and its environs could expect to experience a warming of 4° to 5°F (around 2.5°C) by mid century. By then, the snowpack would be melting 16 days earlier than it did at the beginning of the century. Temperatures would fall to freezing later, and less often, so what fell would be rain, with quicker runoff and more flooding as a consequence. The researcher considered two scenarios – one the notorious “business as usual” prospect, in which greenhouse gas emissions continued to rise without restraint, and the other a world in which governments and society tried to significantly reduce emissions. By 2050, under the mitigation scenario, snowfall would be reduced 31% by 2050, but would stay relatively stable and only be at 33% below baseline by 2100. If the world fails to take action to mitigate climate change, by 2100 however, loss of snow is expected to reach 67% by the end of the century. “Los Angeles must begin today to prepare for climate change,” said Mayor Villaraigosa. “We invested in this study and created the AdaptLA framework to craft innovative solutions and preserve our quality of life for the next generation of Angelenos.” – Climate News Network